The 1008 Names of Lord Shiva
Om Namah Shivaya
As was stated in the introduction to the Shiva Sahasranama previously, there are possibly four different and unique sets of Shiva Sahasranama Stotras - two in the Mahabharata (later found repeated in many Puranas with minor variations), one unique set in the Shiva Purana and one unique set in the Rudrayamala Tantra. The previous version posted was that found in the Linga Purana (essentially from the Mahabharata).
Today, we have the version from the Shiva Purana. As with the Linga Purana version, in the Shiva Purana, Shiva is eulogized by Vishnu.
Shiva Purana, Kotirudra Samhita
(Book IV), Chapter 35, 1-133
May this be heard, O great sages, I shall now recount the hymn of a thousand names of Shiva, whereby Shiva was pleased.
Shiva; Hara; Mrida; Rudra; Pushkara; Pushpalochana; Arthigamya; Sadachara; Sharva; Shambhu; Maheshvara; Chandrapida; Chandramouli; Vishva; Vishvamareshvara; Vedantasara-sandoha; Kapali; Nilalohita; Dhyanadhara; Aparicchedya; Gouribharta; Ganeshvara; Ashtamurti; Vishvamurti; Trivargasvargasadhana; Jnanagamya; Dridaprajna; Devadeva; Trilochana; Vamadeva; Madadeva; Patu; Parivrida; Drida; Vishvarupa; Virupaksha; Vagisha; Shuchisattama; Sarvapramanasamvadi; Vrishanka; Vrishavahana; Isha; Pinaki; Khatvanga; Chitravesha; Chirantana; Tamohara; Mahayogi; Gopta; Brahma; Dhurjati; Kalakala; Krittivasah; Subhaga; Pranavatmaka; Unnadhra; Purusha; Jushya; Durvasa; Purashasana; Divyayudha; Skandaguru; Parameshthi; Paratpara; Anadimadhyanidhana; Girisha; Girijadhava; Kuberabandhu; Shrikanatha; Lokavarnottama; Mridu; Samadhivedya; Kodandi; Nilakantha; Parashvadhi; Vishalaksha; Mrigavyadha; Suresha; Suryatapana; Dharmadhama. Kshamakshetra; Bhagavana; Bhaganetrabhida; Ugra; Pashupati; Tarkshya; Priyabhakta; Parantapa; Data; Dayakara. (100)
Daksha; Karmandi; Kamashasana; Shmashananilaya; Suksha; Shmashanastha; Maheshvara; Lokakarta; Mrigapati; Mahakarta; Mahoushadhi; Uttara; Gopati; Gopta; Jnanagamya; Puratana; Niti; Suniti; Shuddhatma; Soma; Somarata; Sukhi; Sompapa; Amritapa; Soumya; Mahatejah; Mahadyuti; Tejomaya; Amritamaya; Annamaya; Suhapati; Ajatashatru; Aloka; Sambhavya; Havyavahana; Lokakara; Vedakara; Sutrakara; Sanatana; Maharshi; Kapilacharya; Vishvadipti; Vilochana; Pinakapani; Bhudeva; Svastida; Svastikrita; Sudhi; Dhatridhama; Dhamakara; Sarvaga; Sarvagochara; Brahmasrika; Vishvasrika; Sarga; Karnikara; Priya; Kavi; Shakha; Vishakha; Goshakha; Shiva; Bhishaka; Anuttama; Gangaplavodaka; Bhaya; Pushkala; Sthapati; Sthira; Vijitatma; Vishayatma; Bhutavahana; Sarathi; Sagana; Ganakaya; Sukirti; Chinnasamshaya; Kamadeva; Kamapala; Bhasmoddhulita-vigraha; Bhasmapriya; Bhasmashyai; Kami; Kanta; Kritagama; Samavarta; Nivritatma; Dharmapunja; Sadashiva; Akalmasha; Chaturvahu; Durvasa; Durasada; Durlabha; Durgama; Durga; Sarvayudhavisharada; Adhyatmayoganilaya; Sutantu; Tantuvardhana. (200)
Shubhanga; Lokasaranga; Jagadisha; Janardana; Bhasmashuddhikara; Meru; Ojasvi; Shuddhavigraha; Asadhya; Sadhusadhya; Bhrityamarkatarupadhrika; Hiranyareta; Pourana; Ripujivahara; Bala; Mahahrada; Mahagarta; Vyali; Siddhavrindaravandita; Vyaghracharmambara; Mahabhuta; Mahanidhi; Amritasha; Amritavapu; Panchajanya; Prabhanjana; Panchavimshatitattvastha; Parijata; Para-vara; Sulabha; Suvrata; Shura; Brahmavedanidhi; Nidhi; Varnashramaguru; Varni; Shatrujita; Shatrutapana; Ashrama; Kshapana; Kshama; Jnanavana; Achaleshvara;Pramanabhuta; Durjneya; Suparna; Vayuvahana; Dhanurdhara; Dhanurveda; Gunarashi; Gunakara; Satyasatyapara; Dina; Dharmaga; Ananda; Dharmasadhana; Anantadrishti; Danda; Damayita; Dama; Abhivadya; Mahamaya; Vishvakarma; Visharada; Vitaraga; Vinitatma; Tapasvi; Bhutabhavana; Unmattavesha; Pracchanna; Jitakama; Ajitapriya; Kalyanaprakriti; Kalpa; Sarvalokaprajapati; Tarasvi; Tavaka; Dhimana; Pradhanaprabhu; Avyaya; Lokapala; Antarhitatma; Kalpadi; Kamalekshana; Vedashastrarthatattvajna; Aniyama; Niyatashraya; Chandra; Surya; Shani; Ketu; Varanga; Vidrumacchavi; Bhaktivashya; Anagha; Parabrahm-amrigavanarpana; Adri; Adryalaya; Kanta; Paramatma. (300)
Jagadguru; Sarvakarmalaya; Tushta; Mangalya; Mangalavrita; Mahatapa; Dirghatapa; Sthavishtha; Sthavira; Dhruva; Aha; Samvatsara; Vyapti; Pramana; Parmatapa; Samvatsarakara; Mantra-pratyaya; Sarvadarshana; Aja; Sarveshvara; Siddha; Mahareta; Mahabala; Yogi; Yogya; Siddhi; Mahateja; Sarvadi; Agraha; Vasu; Vasumana; Satya; Sarvapaphara; Sukirti; Shobhana; Shrimana; Avanmanasagochara; Amritashashvata; Shanta; Vanahasta; Pratapavana; Kamandalundhara; Dhanvi; Vedanga; Vedavita; Muni; Bhrajishnu; Bhojana; Bhokta; Lokanantha; Duradhara; Atindriya; Mahamaya; Sarvavasa; Chatushpatha; Kalayogi; Mahanada; Mahotsaha; Mahabala; Mahabuddhi; Mahavirya; Bhutachari; Purandara; Nishachara; Pretachari; Mahashakti; Mahadyuti; Ahirdeshyavapu; Shrimana; Sarvacharyamanogati; Vahushruta; Niyatatma; Dhruva; Adhruva; Sarvashaska; Ojastejodyutidara; Nartaka; Nrityapriya; Nrityanitya; Prakashatma; Prakashaka; Spashtakshara; Budha; Mantra; Samana; Sarasamplava; Yugadikrida; Yugavarta; Gambhira; Vrishavahana; Ishta; Vishishta; Shishteshta; Shalabha; Sharabha; Dhanu; Tirtharupa; Tirthanama; Tirthadrishya; Stuta. (400)
Arthada; Apamnidhi; Adhishthana; Vijaya; Jayakalavita; Pratishthita; Pramanajna; Hiranyakavacha; Hari; Vimochana; Suragana; Vidyesha; Vindusamshraya; Balarupa; Vikarta; Balonmatta; Gahana; Guha; Karana; Karta; Sarvabandhavimochana; Vyavasaya; Vyavasthana; Sthanada; Jagadadija; Guruda; Lalita; Abheda; Bhavatmatmasamsthita; Vireshvara; Virabhadra; Virasanavidhi; Virata; Virachudamani; Vetta; Tivrananda; Nadidhara; Ajnadhara; Tridhuli; Shipivishta; Shivalaya; Balakhilya; Mahachapa; Tigmamshu; Badhira; Khaga; Adhirma; Susharana; Subrahmanya; Sudhapati; Maghavana; Koushika; Gomana; Virama; Sarvasadhana; Lalataksha; Vishvadeha; Sara; Samsarachakrabhrita; Amoghadanda; Madhyastha; Hiranya; Brahmavarchasi; Paramartha; Para; Mayi; Shambara; Vyaghralochana; Ruchi; Virinchi; Svarbandhu; Vachaspati; Aharpati; Ravi; Virochana; Skanda; Shasta; Vaivasvata; Yama; Yukti; Unnatakirti; Sanuraga; Paranjaya; Kailashadhipati; Kanta; Savita; Ravilochana; Vidvattama; Vitabhaya; Vishvabharta; Anivarita; Nitya; Niyatakalyana; Punyashravanakirtana; Durashrava; Vishvasaha; Dhyeya; Duhsvapnanashana; Uttarana; Dushkritiha. (500)
Vijneya; Duhsaha; Bhava; Anadi ; Bhurbhuvakshi; Kiriti; Ruchirangada; Janana; Janajanmadi; Pritimana; Nitimana; Dhava; Vasishtha; Kashyapa; Bhanu; Bhima; Bhimaparakrama; Pranava; Satpatchachara; Mahakasha; Mahaghana; Janmadhipa; Mahadeva; Sakalagamaparaga; Tattva; Tattavit; Ekatma; Vibhu; Vishvavibhushana; Rishi; Brahmana; Aishvaryajanmamrityujaratiga; Panchayajnasamutpatti; Vishvesha; Vimalodaya; Atmayoni; Anadyanta; Vatsala; Bhaktalokadhrika; Gayatrivallabha; Pramshu; Vishvavasa; Prabhakara;; Shishu; Giriraha; Samrata; Sushena; Surashatruha; Amogha; Arishtanemi; Kumuda; Vigatajvara; Svayamjyoti; Tanujyoti; Achanchala; Atmajyoti; Pingala; Kapilashmashru; Bhalanetra; Trayitanu; Jnanaskandamahaniti; Vishvotipatti; Upaplava; Bhaga; Vivasvana; Aditya; Yogapara; Divaspati; Kalyanagunanama; Papaha; Punyadarshana; Udarakirti; Udyogi; Sadyogi; Sadasanmaya; Nakshatramali; Nakesha; Svadhishthanapadashraya; Pavitra; Paphari; Manipura; Nabhogati; Hrit; Pundarikasina; Shatru; Shranta; Vrishakapi; Ushna; Grihapati; Krishna; Paramartha; Anarthanashana; Adharmashatru; Ajneya; Puruhuta; Purushruta; Brahmagarbha; Vrihadgarbha; Dharmadhenu; Dhanagama. (600)
Jagaddhitaishi; Sugata; Kumara; Kushalagama; Hiranyavarna; Jyotishmana; Nanbhutarata; Dhvani; Araga; Nayandyaksha; Vishvamitra; Dhaneshvara; Brahmajyoti; Vasudhama; Mahajyotianuttama; Matamaha; Matarishva; Nabhasvana; Nagaharadhrika; Pulastya; Pulaha; Agastya; Jatukarnya; Parashara; Niravarananirvara; Vairanchya; Vishtarashrava; Atmabhu; Aniruddha; Atri; Jnanamurti; Mahayasha; Lokaviragranti; Vira; Chanda; Satyaparakrama; Vyalakapa; Mahakalpa; Kalpaviriksha; Kaladhara; Alankarishnu; Achala; Rochishnu; Vikramonnata; Ayuhshabdapati; Vegi; Plavana; Shikhisarathi; Asamsrishta; Atithi; Shatrupreamathi; Padapasana; Vasushrava; Pratapa; Havyavaha; Vishvabhojana; Japaya; Jaradishamana; Lohitatma; Tanunapata; Brihadashva; Nabhoyoni; Supratika; Tamisraha; Nidagha; Tapana; Megha; Svaksha; Parapuranjaya; Sukhanila; Sunishpanna; Surabhi; Shishiratmaka; Vasanta; Madhava; Grishma; Nabhasya; Vijavahana; Angira; Guru; Atreya; Vimala; Vishvavahana; Pavana; Sumati; Vidvana; Travidya; Naravahana; Manobuddhi; Ahamkara; Kshetrajna; Kshetrapalaka; Jamadagni; Balanidhi; Vigala; Vishvagalava; Aghora; Anuttara; Yajna; Shreye. (700)
Nishshreyahpatha; Shaila; Gaganakundabha; Danavari; Arindama; Rajanijanaka; Charuvishalya; Lokakalpadhrika; Chaturveda; Chatrubhava; Chatura; Chaturapriya; Amlaya; Samamlaya; Tirthavedashivalaya; Vahurupa; Maharupa; Sarvarupa; Charachara; Nyayanirmayaka; Nyayi; Nyayagamya; Nirantara; Sahasramurddha; Devendra; Sarvashastraprabhanjana; Munda; Virupa; Vikranta; Dandi; Danta; Gunottama; Pingalaksha; Janadhyaksha; Nilagriva; Niramaya; Sahasravahu; Sarvesha; Sharanya; Sarvalokadhrika; Padmasana; Paramjyoti; Parampara; Paramphala; Padmagarbha; Mahagarbha; Vishvagarbha; Vichakshana; Characharajna; Varada; Varesha; Mahabala; Devasuraguru; Deva; Devasuramahashraya; Devadideva; Devagni; Devagnisukhada; Prabhu; Devasureshvara; Divya; Devasuramaheshvara; Devadevamaya; Achintya; Devadevatmasambhava; Sadyoni; Asuravyaghra; Devasimha; Divakara; Vibudhagravara; Shreshtha; Sarvadevottamottama; Shivajnanarata; Shrimana; Shikhi-shriparvatapriya; Vajrahasta; Siddhakhadgi; Narasimhanipatana; Brahmachari; Lokachari; Dharmachari; Dhanadhipa; Nandi; Nandishvara; Ananta; Nagnavratadhara; Shuchi; Lingadhyaksha; Suradhyaksha; Yogadhyaksha; Yugavaha; Svadharma; Svargata; Svargakhara; Svaramayasvana; Vanadhyaksha; Vijakarta; Dharmakrit; Dharmasambhava; Dambha. (800)
Alobha; Arthavit; Shambhu; Sarvahbutamaheshvara; Shmashananilaya; Tryksha; Setu; Apratimakriti; Lokottaras-phutaloka; Trymbaka; Nagabhushana; Andhakari; Makhaveshi; Vishnukandharapatana; Hinadosha; Akshayaguna; Dakshari; Pushadantabhit; Dhurjati; Khandaparashu; Sakala; Nishkala; Anagha; Akala; Sakaladhara; Pandurabha; Mrida; Nata; Purna; Purayita; Punya; Sukumara; Sulochana; Samageyapriya; Akrura; Punyakirti; Anaymaya; Manojava; Tirthakara; Jatila; Jiviteshvara; Jivitantakara; Nitya; Vasureta; Vasuprada; Sadgati; Satkriti; Siddhi; Sajjati; Kalakantaka; Kaladhara; Mahakala; Bhuasatyapraryana; Lokalavanyakarta; Lokottarasukhalaya; Chandrasanjivana; Shasta; Lokaguda; Mahadhipa; Lokabandhu; Lokanatha; Kritajna; Krittibhushana; Anapaya; Akshara; Kanta; Sarvashastrahadvara; Tejomaya; Dyutidhara; Lokagranti; Anu; Shuchismita; Prasannatma; Durjjeya; Duratikrama; Jyotirmaya; Jagannatha; Nirakra; Jaleshvara; Tumbavina; Mahakopa; Vishoka; Shokanashana; Trllokapa; Trilokesha; Sarvashuddhi; Adhokshaja; Avyaktalakshana; Deva; Vyaktavyakta; Vishampati; Varashila; Varaguna; Saramandhana; Maya; Brahma; Vishnu; Prajapala; Hamsa; Hamsagati. (900)
Vaya; Vedha; Vidhata; Dhata; Srashta; Harta; Chaturmukha; Kailasa-Shikharavasi; Sarvavasi; Sadagati; Hiranyagarbha; Druhina; Bhutapa; Bhupati; Sadyogi; Yogavit; Yogi; Varada; Brahmanapriya; Devapriya; Devanatha; Devajna; Devachintaka; Vishamaksha; Vishalaksha; Vrishada; Vrishavardhana; Nirmama; Nirahamkara; Nirmoha; Nirupadrava; Darpha; Darpada; Dripta; Sarvabhutaparivartaka; Sahasrajit; Sahasrarchi; Prabhava; Snigddhaprakritidakshina; Bhutabhavyabhavannatha; Bhutinashana; Artha; Anartha; Mahakosha; Parakaryaikapandita; Nishkantaka; Kritananda; Nirvyaja; Vyajamardana; Sattvavana; Sattvika; Satyakirti; Snehakritagama; Akampita; Gunagrahi; Naikatma; Naikakarmakrit; Suprita; Sumukha; Suksha; Sukara; Dakshinaila; Nandiskandhadhara; Dhurya; Prakata; Pritivardhana; Aparajita; Sarvasattva; Govinda; Adhrita; Sattvavahana; Svadhrita; Siddha; Putamurti; Yashodhana; Varahabhringadhrika; Bhringi; Balavana; Ekanayaka; Shrutiprakasha; Shrutimana; Ekabandhu; Anekakrit; Shrivatsalashivarambha; Shantabhadra; Sama; Yasha; Bhushaya;Bhushana; Bhuti; Bhutakrit; Bhutabhavana; Akampa; Bhaktikaya; Kalaha; Nilalohita; Satyavrata; Mahatyagi; Nityashantiparayana; Pararthavritti; Vivikshu; Visharada; Shubhada; Shubhakarta; Shubhanama; Shubha; Anarthita; Aguna; Sakshi; Akarta. (1000)
- the hymn of a thousand names -
Sahasranama means thousand (sahasra) names (nama), and Sahasranama Stotra is a hymn eulogizing the Lord by recounting one thousand of His names. As the various sects of Hindu-tradition (Shaivism, Shaktism and Vaishnavism) grew and spread, it must have become extremely popular to write hymns of a thousand names for the primary Deity of worship. There are various Sahasranama Stotras, but obviously here, we concentrate on the Shiva Sahasranama Stotra.
What makes the Shiva Sahasranama Stotra unique is the number of times and variations of the hymn, that are found in ancient texts. The appearance of the Shiva Sahasranama Stotra in at least 18 different texts is a testament to the fact that Shaivism in various forms was once immensely popular throughout the Indian subcontinent. In fact, Shaivism was the most widespread and influential form of Hinduism prior to 1200 CE (before the beginning of the Islamic era and the pan-Indian Vaishnava devotional movements). One published version of the Shiva Purana [Vangavasi Press Edition] contains six samhitas (books):
(1) Jnana Samhita
(2) Vidyeshvara Samhita
(3) Kailasa Samhita
(4) Sanatkumara Samhita
(5) Vayaviya Samhita
(6) Dharma Samhita
This version of the Shiva Purana is divided into 290 chapters and contains roughly 12,000 verses, and was published based on manuscripts found in eastern India.
The other published version of the Shiva Purana [Venkatesvara and Pandit Pustakalaya Editions] contains not six, but seven samhitas:
(1) Vidyeshvara Samihta
(2) Rudra Samhita
(3) Shatarudra Samhita
(4) Kotirudra Samhita
(5) Uma Samhita
(6) Kailasa Samhita
(7) Vayaviya Samhita
This version of the Shiva Purana is divided into 451 chapters and contains roughly 24,000 verses, and was published based on manuscripts found in northern and southern India.
Clearly the first version is much shorter than the second. And perhaps more importantly, not even the lists of samhitas from the two versions coincide with one another. Why is this?
Some say that the answer to this riddle is in the Shiva Purana itself. Within the text of the Vidyeshvara and the Vayaviya Samhitas, both of which are common to both versions, it is explained that the original Shiva Purana contained 12 samhitas totaling 100,000 verses. Furthermore, the Vidyeshvara (II:49-56) and Vayaviya Samhitas list the names of 12 samhitas and the original number of verses in each:
(1) Vidyeshvara Samhita (10,000)
(2) Rudra Samhita (8,000)
(3) Vainayaka Samhita (8,000)
(4) Uma Samhita (8,000)
(5) Matri Samhita (8,000)
(6) Rudra-Ekadasha Samhita (13,000)
(7) Kailasa Samhita (6,000)
(8) Shatarudra Samhita (3,000)
(9) Sahasrakotirudra Samhita (11,000)
(10) Kotirudra Samhita (9,000)
(11) Vayaviya Samhita (4,000)
(12) Dharma Samhita (12,000)
Glancing back at the list of samhitas in the currently-available published versions, we find that all but the Vainayaka, Matri, Rudra-Ekadasha and Sahasrakotirudra Samhitas are available in one version or another. So, presumably these aforementioned samhitas have been lost with time.
Now, the other lingering questions that come to mind are: whence did the Jnana and Sanatkumara Samhitas come (neither is listed as part of the original text); and why were different collations of samhitas found in different areas? The only rational answer to these questions is that the Shiva Purana has been growing and changing since the text was first put into writing. In different areas, different samhitas were written down, but never were all the books collated to form one complete version. It may indeed be true that there were many more samhitas in existence, which were lost over time. But as some were lost, others were being recovered.
Below is a list of the texts in which Shiva Sahasranama Stotras are found.
1. Mahabharata (Anushasanaparva version)
2. Mahabharata (Shantiparva version)
3. Linga Purana (version 1; chapter 65)
4. Linga Purana (version 2; chapter 97)
5. Shiva Purana (Kotirudra Samhita)
6. Vayu Purana
7. Brahmanda Purana
8. Devi Mahabhagavata Upapurana
9. Padma Purana
10. Skanda Purana
11. Vamana Purana
12. Markandeya Purana
13. Saura Purana
14. Bhairava Tantra
15. Bhringiridi Samhita
16. Rudrayamala Tantra
17. Shiva Rahasya Itihasa
18. Akasa Kalpa Tantra
Using the reductionist approach, we arrive at four different major variants of the Shiva Sahasranama:
1. Mahabharata (Anushasanaparva version)
2. Mahabharata (Shantiparva version)
3. Shiva Purana
4. Rudrayamala Tantra
The two Mahabharata versions were copied into most of the Puranas, including the Linga Purana, with minor variations. An exception is the Shiva Purana version which appears to be original. Another original version is found in the Rudrayamala Tantra, which was later copied into the Shiva Rahasya Itihasa. If we were to hazard a guess as to which school the Shiva Sahasranama Stotras came from, it would be fairly reasonable to say that the Mahabharata (and most Purana) versions belong to the Smartas, the Shiva Purana version belongs to the Pashupatas, and the Rudrayamala Tantra version belongs to the Tantrik Shaivas.
The most ancient form of the Shiva Sahasranama Stotra is found in the Anushasanaparva book of the Mahabharata, wherein Shiva is eulogized by Krishna. The next most ancient version is likely the one found in the Shantiparva book of the Mahabharata, which is thought to have been inserted later into the book, and not found in standard critical editions of the Mahabharata. The 1000 names given below are from the Linga Purana and are probably based on the Shantiparva book of the Mahabharata with some variations. In the Linga Purana, it is not Krishna, but Vishnu who eulogizes Shiva.
It is important to remember that in any given Sahasranama, several names are repeated more than once, and in most there are actually more than 1000 names. Given below are only the first 1000 names as found in the Linga Purana.